Expansion Bellows


Pipe Solutions

Pipe Solutions are solving the problems of thermal expansion, building settlement movement, noise, vibration, de-aeration and dirt removal in pipes and plant, whilst providing an unequalled portfolio of expansion joints, flexible connectors, flexible hoses and couplings, vibration isolators and air & dirt removal equipment.

All pipes and vessels expand and contract in direct proportion to a temperature change. This can be due to the temperature of the flowing media or from surrounding ambient temperature. Wind chill and solar gain are also factors that should be considered. Expansion and contraction can be calculated mathematically using the formula:-

X = L × (T1-T2 ) × C Exp

Where,
X = Expansion or Contraction (m)
L = Length of pipe or vessel (m)
T1 = Starting Temperature (oC)
T2 = Final Temperature (oC)
CExp = Coefficient of Thermal Expansion

Coefficients of Thermal Expansion for various common materials are shown below:-

Coefficients of Thernal Expansion for Common Pipe Materials
Metals
Plastics
Material
Coefficient
Material
Coefficient
Copper
16.4 X 10(6)
ABS
100 X 10(6)
Carbon Steel
12.2 X 10(6)
PVCU
80 X 10(6)
Stainless Steel (Austenetic)
16.3 X 10(6)
PVCC
70 X 10(6)
Stainless Steel (Ferritic)
10.9X 10(6)
PE
200 X 10(6)
Cast Iron
11.0 X 10(6)
PP
150 X 10(6)

Allowances must also be taken into account for building and vessel settlement, plant vibration, water hammer and wind loading. Once all the parameters regarding pipe movement,expansion and other factors have been assessed, then a potential solution can be found. De-aeration, dirt removal & water conditioning products are installed to condition the water so that the system runs at maximum efficiency. Conditioning the water involves removing unwanted air / dirt and introducing chemicals to treat the water. Air vents are the devices that physically remove large pockets of air that gathers at high points within the system. De-aerators are the devices that are able to remove air from the circulating water, either by centrifugal action (removing small to large bubbles) or by cohesion (removing micro bubbles).